Parameters lateral concepts

Kinematic wave

Surface flow

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct SurfaceFlow, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. SurfaceFlow is used for river and overland flow. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [input.lateral.river] and [input.lateral.land], for river and overland flow respectively, to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable. For river flow three additionally parameters can be set, dl (river length), width (river width) and bankfull river depth bankfull_depth as follows, through the TOML file:

[input.lateral.river]
length = "wflow_riverlength"
width = "wflow_riverwidth"
bankfull_depth = "wflow_riverdepth"
parameterdescriptionunitdefault
βconstant in Manning's equation--
dllengthm-
nManning's roughnesss m$^{-\frac{1}{3}}$[1]
slslopem m$^{-1}$-
widthwidthm-
qdischargem$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
qininflow from upstream cellsm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
q_avaverage dischargem$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
qlatlateral inflow per unit lengthm$^2$ s$^{-1}$-
inwaterlateral inflowm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
inflowexternal inflow (abstraction/supply/demand)m$^3$ s$^{-1}$0.0
volumekinematic wave volumem$^3$-
hwater levelm-
h_avaverage water levelm-
bankfull_depthbankfull river depthm1.0
Δtmodel time steps-
itsnumber of fixed iterations--
alpha_powused in the power part of $\alpha$--
alpha_termterm used in computation of $\alpha$--
αconstant in momentum equation $A = \alpha Q^{\beta}$s$^{\frac{3}{5}}$ m$^{\frac{1}{5}}$-
celcelerity of kinematic wavem s$^{-1}$-
to_riverpart of overland flow that flows to the riverm s$^3$-
rivercellslocation of river cells (0 or 1)--
wb_pitlocation (0 or 1) of a waterbody (wb, reservoir or lake)--
reservoir_indexmap cell to 0 (no reservoir) or i (pick reservoir i in reservoir field)--
lake_indexmap cell to 0 (no lake) or i (pick lake i in lake field)--
reservoir [2]an array of reservoir models SimpleReservoir--
lake [2]an array of lake models NaturalLake--
kinwave_itboolean for kinematic wave iterations-false

Reservoirs

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct SimpleReservoir, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [input.lateral.river.reservoir], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable.

Two parameters reservoir coverage areas and the outlet of reservoirs (unique id) locs that are not part of the SimpleReservoir struct are also required, and can be set as follows through the TOML file:

[input.lateral.river.reservoir]
areas = "wflow_reservoirareas"
locs = "wflow_reservoirlocs"
parameterdescriptionunitdefault
areaaream$^2$-
demandrelease ( demand)minimum (environmental) flow released from reservoirm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
maxreleasemaximum amount that can be released if below spillwaym$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
maxvolumemaximum storage (above which water is spilled)m$^3$-
targetfullfractarget fraction full (of max storage)--
targetminfractarget minimum full fraction (of max storage)--
Δtmodel time steps-
volumevolumem$^3$-
inflowtotal inflow into reservoirm$^3$-
outflowoutflow into reservoirm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
totaloutflowtotal outflow into reservoirm$^3$-
percfullfraction full (of max storage)--
precipitationoutflow into reservoirmm Δt⁻¹-
evaporationoutflow into reservoirmm Δt⁻¹-

Lakes

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct NaturalLake, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [input.lateral.river.lake], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable.

Two parameters lake coverage areas and the outlet of lakes (unique id) locs that are not part of the NaturalLake struct are also required, and can be set as follows through the TOML file:

[input.lateral.river.lake]
areas = "wflow_lakeareas"
locs = "wflow_lakelocs"
parameterdescriptionunitdefault
areaaream$^2$-
bRating curve coefficient--
eRating curve exponent--
outflowfunctype of lake rating curve--
storfunctype of lake storage curve--
thresholdwater level threshold $H_0$ below that level outflow is zerom-
waterlevelwaterlevel $H$ of lakem-
lowerlake_ind (linkedlakelocs)Index of lower lake (linked lakes)-0
shdata for storage curve--
hqdata rating curve--
Δtmodel time steps-
inflowtotal inflow to the lakem$^3$-
storagestorage lakem$^3$-
outflowoutflow lakem$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
totaloutflowtotal outflow lakem$^3$-
precipitationaverage precipitation for lake areamm Δt⁻¹-
evaporationaverage precipitation for lake areamm Δt⁻¹-

Lateral subsurface flow

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct LateralSSF, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
kh₀horizontal hydraulic conductivity at soil surfacem d$^{-1}$-
fa scaling parameter (controls exponential decline of kh₀)m$^{-1}$-
soilthicknesssoil thicknessm-
θₛsaturated water content (porosity)--
θᵣresidual water content--
Δtmodel time stepd-
βₗslope--
dldrain lengthm-
dwdrain widthm-
zipseudo-water table depth (top of the saturated zone)m-
exfiltwaterexfiltration (groundwater above surface level, saturated excess conditions)m Δt⁻¹-
rechargenet recharge to saturated storem Δt⁻¹-
ssfsubsurface flowm$^3$ d${-1}$-
ssfininflow from upstream cellsm$^3$ d${-1}$-
ssfmaxmaximum subsurface flowm$^2$ d${-1}$-
to_riverpart of subsurface flow that flows to the riverm$^3$ d${-1}$-
wb_pitboolean location (0 or 1) of a waterbody (wb, reservoir or lake)--

Local inertial

River flow

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct ShallowWaterRiver, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [input.lateral.river], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable. The parameter river bed elevation zb is based on the bankfull elevation and depth input data:

[input.lateral.river]
bankfull_elevation = "RiverZ"
bankfull_depth = "RiverDepth"
parameterdescriptionunitdefault
mannings_nManning's roughness at edge/links m$^{-\frac{1}{3}}$0.036
widthriver widthm-
zbriver bed elevationm-
lengthriver lengthm-
nnumber of cells--
nenumber of edges/links--
gacceleration due to gravitym s$^{-2}$-
αstability coefficient (Bates et al., 2010)-0.7
h_threshdepth threshold for calculating flowm0.001
Δtmodel time steps-
qriver discharge (subgrid channel)m$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
q_avaverage river discharge (subgrid channel)m$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
zb_maxmaximum channel bed elevationm-
hwater depthm-
η_maxmaximum water elevationm-
hfwater depth at edge/linkm-
h_avaverage water depthm-
length_at_linkriver length at edge/linkm-
width_at_linkriver width at edge/linkm-
aflow area at edge/linkm$^2$-
rwetted perimeter at edge/linkm-
volumeriver volumem$^3$-
errorerror volumem$^3$-
inwaterlateral inflowm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
inflowexternal inflow (abstraction/supply/demand)m$^3$ s$^{-1}$0.0
bankfull_volumebankfull volumem$^3$-
bankfull_depthbankfull depthm-
froude_limitif true a check is performed if froude number > 1.0 (algorithm is modified)--
reservoir_indexmap cell to 0 (no reservoir) or i (pick reservoir i in reservoir field)--
lake_indexmap cell to 0 (no lake) or i (pick lake i in lake field)--
reservoiran array of reservoir models SimpleReservoir--
lakean array of lake models NaturalLake--

Overland flow

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct ShallowWaterLand, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [input.lateral.land], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
nnumber of cells--
xlcell length x directionm-
ylcell length y directionm-
xwidtheffective flow width x direction (floodplain)m-
ywidtheffective flow width y direction (floodplain)m-
gacceleration due to gravitym s$^{-2}$-
θweighting factor (de Almeida et al., 2012)-0.8
αstability coefficient (Bates et al., 2010)-0.7
h_threshdepth threshold for calculating flowm0.001
Δtmodel time steps-
qy0flow in y direction at previous time stepm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
qx0flow in x direction at previous time stepm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
qxflow in x directionm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
qyflow in y directionm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
zx_maxmaximum cell elevation (x direction)m-
zy_maxmaximum cell elevation (y direction)m-
mannings_nManning's roughnesss m$^{-\frac{1}{3}}$0.072
volumetotal volume of cell (including river volume for river cells)m$^3$-
errorerror volumem$^3$-
runoffrunoff from hydrological modelm$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
hwater depth of cellm-
zelevation of cellm-
froude_limitif true a check is performed if froude number > 1.0 (algorithm is modified)--
rivercellsriver cells--
h_avaverage water depthm-

Groundwater flow

Confined aquifer

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct ConfinedAquifer, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. Struct ConfinedAquifer is not (yet) part of a Wflow Model.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
khorizontal conductivitym d$^{-1}$s-
storativitystorativitym m$^{-1}$-
specific_storagespecific storagem$^{-1}$- }
toptop groundwater layersm-
bottombottom groundwater layersm-
areacell aream$^2$-
headgroundwater headm-
conductanceconductancem$^2$ d$^{-1}$-

Unconfined aquifer

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct UnconfinedAquifer, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [lateral.subsurface], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable. For some input parameters the parameter listed under [lateral.subsurface] is not equal to the internal model parameter, these are listed in the Table below between parentheses after the internal model parameter. The top parameter is provided by the external parameter altitude as part of the static input data and set as follows through the TOML file:

[input]
# these are not directly part of the model
altitude = "wflow_dem"
parameterdescriptionunitdefault
k (conductivity)horizontal conductivitym d$^{-1}$s-
specific_yieldspecific yieldm m$^{-1}$-
top (altitude)top groundwater layerm-
bottombottom groundwater layerm-
areacell aream$^2$-
headgroundwater headm-
conductanceconductancem$^2$ d$^{-1}$-

Constant Head

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct ConstantHead, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [lateral.subsurface], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable. For some input parameters the parameter listed under [lateral.subsurface] is not equal to the internal model parameter, these are listed in the Table below between parentheses after the internal model parameter.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
head (constant_head)groundwater headm-
indexconstand head cell index--

Boundary conditions

River

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct River, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [lateral.subsurface], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable. For some input parameters the parameter listed under [lateral.subsurface] is not equal to the internal model parameter, these are listed in the Table below between parentheses after the internal model parameter.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
stageriver stagem-
infiltration_conductanceriver bed infiltration conductancem$^2$ day$^{-1}$ m$^2$ day$^{-1}$-
exfiltration_conductanceriver bed exfiltration conductancem$^2$ day$^{-1}$-
bottom (river_bottom)river bottom elevationm-
indexriver cell index--
fluxexchange flux (river to aquifer)m$^3$ d$^{-1}$-

Drainage

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct Drainage, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [lateral.subsurface], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable. For some input parameters the parameter listed under [lateral.subsurface] is not equal to the internal model parameter, these are listed in the Table below between parentheses after the internal model parameter.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
elevation (drain_elevation)drain elevationm-
conductance (drain_conductance)drain conductancem$^2$ day$^{-1}$-
index (drain)drain cell index--
fluxexchange flux (drains to aquifer)m$^3$ day$^{-1}$-

Recharge

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct Recharge, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
raterecharge ratem$^3$ day$^{-1}$-
indexrecharge cell index--
fluxrecharge fluxm$^3$ day$^{-1}$-

Head boundary

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct HeadBoundary, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
headheadm-
conductanceconductance of the head boundarym$^2$ day$^{-1}$-
indexhead boundary cell index--
fluxconductance of the head boundarym$^3$ day$^{-1}$-

Well boundary

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct Well, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable.

input parameterdescriptionunitdefault
volumetric_ratevolumetric well ratem$^3$ d$^{-1}$-
indexwell index--
fluxactual well fluxm$^3$ day$^{-1}$-

Sediment

Overland flow

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct OverlandFlowSediment, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable.

parameterdescriptionunitdefault
nnumber of cells--
rivcellriver cells--
soillosstotal eroded soilton Δt$^{-1}$-
erosclayeroded soil for particle class clayton Δt$^{-1}$-
erossilteroded soil for particle class siltton Δt$^{-1}$-
erossanderoded soil for particle class sandton Δt$^{-1}$-
erossaggeroded soil for particle class small aggregateston Δt$^{-1}$-
eroslaggeroded soil for particle class large aggregateston Δt$^{-1}$-
TCsedtotal transport capacity of overland flowton Δt$^{-1}$-
TCclaytransport capacity of overland flow for particle class clayton Δt$^{-1}$-
TCsilttransport capacity of overland flow for particle class siltton Δt$^{-1}$-
TCsandtransport capacity of overland flow for particle class sandton Δt$^{-1}$-
TCsaggtransport capacity of overland flow for particle class small aggregateston Δt$^{-1}$-
TClaggtransport capacity of overland flow for particle class large aggregateston Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsedsediment reaching the river with overland flowton Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandclaysediment with particle class clay reaching the river with overland flowton Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsiltsediment with particle class silt reaching the river with overland flowton Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsandsediment with particle class sand reaching the river with overland flowton Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsaggsediment with particle class small aggregates reaching the river with overland flowton Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandlaggsediment with particle class large aggregates reaching the river with overland flowton Δt$^{-1}$-

River flow

The Table below shows external parameters that can be set through static input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [input.lateral.river]. These external parameters are not part of struct RiverSediment, but used to calculate parameters of struct RiverSediment.

external parameterdescriptionunitdefault
reslocsreservoir location (outlet)--
resareasreservoir coverage--
resareareservoir area-m$^2$
restrapeffreservoir trapping efficiency coefficient--
lakelocslake location (outlet)--
lakeareaslake coverage--
lakearealake area-m$^2$

The Table below shows the parameters (fields) of struct RiverSediment, including a description of these parameters, the unit, and default value if applicable. The parameters in bold represent model parameters that can be set through static and forcing input data (netCDF), and can be listed in the TOML configuration file under [input.lateral.river], to map the internal model parameter to the external netCDF variable. For some input parameters the parameter listed under [input.lateral.river] is not equal to the internal model parameter, these are listed in the Table below between parentheses after the internal model parameter. For example, internal model parameter sl is mapped as follows in the TOML file to the external netCDF variable RiverSlope:

[input.vertical]
slope = "RiverSlope"
parameterdescriptionunitdefault
dl (length)river lengthm-
widthriver widthm-
sl (slope)river slope--
rhos (rhosed)density of sedimentkg m$^{-3}1$2650.0
dmclaymedian diameter particle size class claymm2.0
dmsiltmedian diameter particle size class siltmm10.0
dmsandmedian diameter particle size class sandmm200.0
dmsaggmedian diameter particle size class small aggregatesmm30.0
dmlaggmedian diameter particle size class large aggregatesmm500.0
dmgravmedian diameter particle size class gravelmm2000.0
fclayrivfraction of particle class clay--
fsiltrivfraction of particle class silt--
fsandrivfraction of particle class sand--
fsaggrivfraction of particle class small aggregates--
flaggrivfraction of particle class large aggregates--
fgravrivfraction of particle class gravel--
d50 (d50riv)river sediment median diametermm-
d50engelundriver mean diametermm-
cbagnoldBagnold c coefficient--
ebagnoldBagnold exponent--
nnumber of cells--
Δtmodel time steps-
akKodatie coefficient a--
bkKodatie coefficient b--
ckKodatie coefficient c--
dkKodatie coefficient d--
kdbankbank erodibiltym$^3$ N$^{-1}$ s$^{-1}$-
kdbedbed erodibilitym$^3$ N$^{-1}$ s$^{-1}$-
TCrbankcritical bed bank shear stressm$^3$ N$^{-2}$-
TCrbedcritical bed shear stressm$^3$ N$^{-2}$-
h_rivriver water levelm-
q_rivriver dischargem$^3$ s$^{-1}$-
inlandclaysediment input with particle class clay from land erosiont Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsiltsediment input with particle class silt from land erosiont Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsandsediment input with particle class sand from land erosiont Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsaggsediment input with particle class small aggregates from land erosiont Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandlaggsediment input with particle class large aggregates from land erosiont Δt$^{-1}$-
inlandsedsediment input from land erosiont Δt$^{-1}$-
sedloadsediment left in the cellt-
clayloadsediment with particle class clay left in the cellt-
siltloadsediment with particle class silt left in the cellt-
sandloadsediment with particle class sand left in the cellt-
saggloadsediment with particle class small aggregates left in the cellt-
laggloadsediment with particle class large aggregates in the cellt-
gravloadsediment with particle class gravel left in the cellt-
sedstoresediment stored on the river bed after depositiont Δt$^{-1}$-
claystoresediment with particle class clay stored on the river bed after depositiont Δt$^{-1}$-
siltstoresediment with particle class silt stored on the river bed after depositiont Δt$^{-1}$-
sandstoresediment with particle class sand stored on the river bed after depositiont Δt$^{-1}$-
saggstoresediment with particle class small aggregates stored on the river bed after depositiont Δt$^{-1}$-
laggstoresediment with particle class large aggregates stored on the river bed after depositiont Δt$^{-1}$-
gravstoresediment with particle class gravel stored on the river bed after depositiont Δt$^{-1}$-
outsedsediment fluxt Δt$^{-1}$-
outclaysediment with particle class clay fluxt Δt$^{-1}$-
outsiltsediment with particle class siltt Δt$^{-1}$-
outsandsediment with particle class sandt Δt$^{-1}$-
outsaggsediment with particle class small aggregatest Δt$^{-1}$-
outlaggsediment with particle class large aggregatest Δt$^{-1}$-
outgravsediment with particle class gravelt Δt$^{-1}$-
Sedconcsediment concentrationkg m$^{-3}$-
SSconcsediment concentrationkg m$^{-3}$-
Bedconcsediment concentrationkg m$^{-3}$-
maxsedriver transport capacityt Δt$^{-1}$-
erodsedtotal eroded sedimentt Δt$^{-1}$-
erodsedbankeroded bank sedimentt Δt$^{-1}$-
erodsedbederoded bed sedimentt Δt$^{-1}$-
depseddeposited sedimentt Δt$^{-1}$-
insedsediment input fluxt Δt$^{-1}$-
wbcoverwaterbody coverage--
wblocswaterbody locations--
wbareawaterbody aream$^2$-
wbtrapwaterbody trapping efficiency coefficient--
  • 1default value for Manning's roughness n, river = 0.036; land = 0.072
  • 2only applicable for river domain