Config and TOML

TOML is used as the configuration format for models available in wflow. File paths included in the configuration TOML file are relative to the TOML file location.

General time info

Time information is optional. When left out, each time step in the forcing NetCDF will be calculated. If you wish to calculate a subset of this time range, or a different timestep, you can specify a starttime, endtime and timestepsecs yourself. The time_units optional information is used by the writer of the model, for model output in netCDF format. The calendar option allows you to calculate in one of the different CF conventions calendars provided by the CFTime.jl package, such as "360_day". This is useful if you want to calculate climate scenarios which are sometimes provided in these alternative calendars.

calendar = "standard"                           # optional, this is default value
endtime = 2000-02-01T00:00:00                   # optional, default from forcing NetCDF
starttime = 2000-01-01T00:00:00                 # optional, default from forcing NetCDF
time_units = "days since 1900-01-01 00:00:00"   # optional, this is default value
timestepsecs = 86400                            # optional, default from forcing NetCDF

Model section

Model specific settings can be included in the model section of the TOML file.

[model]
type = "sbm"                        # one of ("sbm", "sbm_gwf, "hbv")
masswasting = true                  # include lateral snow transport in the model, default is false
snow = true                         # include snow modelling, default is false
reinit = true                       # cold (reinit = true) or warm state (reinit = false), default is true
reservoirs = true                   # include reservoir modelling, default is false
kin_wave_iteration = true           # enable kinematic wave iterations in the model, default is false
thicknesslayers = [100, 300, 800]   # specific SBM setting: for each soil layer a thickness [mm] is specified
min_streamorder = 3                 # minimum stream order to delineate subbasins, default is 4 (for multi-threading computing purposes)

State section

The state section in the TOML file provides information about the location of the state file if the model is initialized with a warm state (path_input) and to what file the states are written at the end of the model run (path_output). A mapping between external state names and internal model states is required. This information is specified for each model component, the vertical model and lateral model components. In the example below the vertical component represents the SBM concept, and for the lateral components there is a river (including reservoir), land and subsurface domain. The internal model states are listed on the left side, and the external state names are listed on the right side. Note that path_input is only required when reinit is set to false. path_output is optional, an output state file is only written when it is defined. If neither is set, the entire state section can be left out.

[state]
path_input = "data/instates-moselle.nc" 
path_output = "data/outstates-moselle.nc"

[state.vertical]
satwaterdepth = "satwaterdepth"
snow = "snow"
tsoil = "tsoil"
ustorelayerdepth = "ustorelayerdepth"
snowwater = "snowwater"
canopystorage = "canopystorage"

[state.lateral.river]
q = "q_river"
h = "h_river"
h_av = "h_av_river"

[state.lateral.river.reservoir]
volume = "volume_reservoir"

[state.lateral.subsurface]
ssf = "ssf"

[state.lateral.land]
q = "q_land"
h = "h_land"
h_av = "h_av_land"

Input section

The input section of the TOML file contains information about the input forcing and model parameters files (netCDF format). Forcing is applied to the vertical component of the model, and needs to be mapped to the external netCDF variable name. forcing lists the internal model forcing parameters, and these are mapped to the external netCDF variables listed under the section [input.vertical]. It is possible to provide cyclic parameters to the model. In the example below this is done for the internal vertical.leaf_area_index model parameter, that is linked to the external netCDF variable "LAI" variable.

As for the states, mapping of external model parameters (provided in the example below by the file staticmaps-moselle.nc) is done per model component. If a model parameter is not mapped a default value will be used if available.

[input]
path_forcing = "data/forcing-moselle.nc"
path_static = "data/staticmaps-moselle.nc"

# these are not directly part of the model
gauges = "wflow_gauges"
ldd = "wflow_ldd"
river_location = "wflow_river"
subcatchment = "wflow_subcatch"

# specify the internal IDs of the parameters which vary over time
# the external name mapping needs to be below together with the other mappings
forcing = [
"vertical.precipitation",
"vertical.temperature",
"vertical.potential_evaporation",
]

cyclic = ["vertical.leaf_area_index"]

[input.vertical]
altitude = "wflow_dem" 
c = "c" 
cf_soil = "cf_soil" 
cfmax = "Cfmax" 
e_r = "EoverR" 
infiltcappath = "InfiltCapPath" 
infiltcapsoil = "InfiltCapSoil" 
kext = "Kext" 
"kv₀" = "KsatVer" 
leaf_area_index = "LAI"
m = "M" 
maxleakage = "MaxLeakage" 
pathfrac = "PathFrac" 
potential_evaporation = "PET" # forcing
precipitation = "P" # forcing
rootdistpar = "rootdistpar" 
rootingdepth = "RootingDepth" 
soilminthickness = "SoilMinThickness" 
soilthickness = "SoilThickness" 
specific_leaf = "Sl" 
storage_wood = "Swood" 
temperature = "TEMP" # forcing
tt = "TT" 
tti = "TTI" 
ttm = "TTM" 
w_soil = "wflow_soil" 
water_holding_capacity = "WHC" 
waterfrac = "WaterFrac" 
"θᵣ" = "thetaR" 
"θₛ" = "thetaS"

[input.lateral.river]
length = "wflow_riverlength"
n = "N_River"
slope = "RiverSlope"
width = "wflow_riverwidth"

[input.lateral.river.reservoir]
area = "ResSimpleArea"
areas = "wflow_reservoirareas"
demand = "ResDemand"
locs = "wflow_reservoirlocs"
maxrelease = "ResMaxRelease"
maxvolume = "ResMaxVolume"
targetfullfrac = "ResTargetFullFrac"
targetminfrac = "ResTargetMinFrac"

[input.lateral.subsurface]
ksathorfrac = "KsatHorFrac"

[input.lateral.land]
n = "N"
slope = "Slope"

Output NetCDF section

Grid data

This optional section of the TOML file contains the output netCDF file for writing gridded model output, including a mapping between internal model parameter components and external netCDF variables.

[output]
path = "data/output_moselle.nc"

[output.vertical]
satwaterdepth = "satwaterdepth"
snow = "snow"
tsoil = "tsoil"
ustorelayerdepth = "ustorelayerdepth"
snowwater = "snowwater"
canopystorage = "canopystorage"

[output.lateral.river]
q = "q_river"
h = "h_river"

[output.lateral.river.reservoir]
volume = "volume_reservoir"

[output.lateral.subsurface]
ssf = "ssf"

[output.lateral.land]
q = "q_land"
h = "h_land"

Scalar data

Besides gridded data, it is also possible to write scalar data to a NetCDF file. Below is an example that writes scalar data to the file "output_scalar_moselle.nc". For each NetCDF variable a name (external variable name) and parameter (internal model parameter) is required. A reducer can be specified to apply to the model output, see for more information the following section Output CSV section. When a map is provided to extract data for certain locations (e.g. gauges) or areas (e.g. subcatchment), the NetCDF location names are extracted from these maps. For a specific location (grid cell) a location is required. In the section Output CSV section, similar functionality is available for CSV. For integration with Delft-FEWS, see also Run from Delft-FEWS, it is recommended to write scalar data to NetCDF format since the General Adapter of Delft-FEWS can ingest this data format directly.

[netcdf]
path = "data/output_scalar_moselle.nc"

[[netcdf.variable]]
name = "Q"
map = "gauges"
parameter = "lateral.river.q"

[[netcdf.variable]]
coordinate.x = 6.255
coordinate.y = 50.012
name = "temp_coord"
location = "temp_bycoord"
parameter = "vertical.temperature"

[[netcdf.variable]]
location = "temp_byindex"
name = "temp_index"
index.x = 100
index.y = 264
parameter = "vertical.temperature"

Output CSV section

Model output can also be written to CSV output. Below is an example that writes model output to the file "output_moselle.csv". For each CSV column a header and parameter (internal model parameter) is required. A reducer can be specified to apply to the model output, with the following available reducers:

  • maximum
  • minimum
  • mean
  • median
  • first
  • last
  • only

with only as the default. To extract data for a specific location (grid cell), the index of the vector, the coordinates coordinate.x and coordinate.y, or the x and y indices of the 2D array (index.x and index.y) can be provided. Finally a map can be provided to extract data for certain locations (e.g. gauges) or areas (e.g. subcatchment). In this case a single entry can lead to multiple columns in the CSV file, which will be of the form header_id, e.g. Q_20, for a gauge with integer ID 20.

The double brackets in [[csv.column]] is TOML syntax to indicate that it is part of a list. You may specify as many entries as you wish.

[csv]
path = "data/output_moselle.csv"

[[csv.column]]
header = "Q"
parameter = "lateral.river.q"
reducer = "maximum"

[[csv.column]]
header = "volume"
index = 1
parameter = "lateral.river.reservoir.volume"

[[csv.column]]
coordinate.x = 6.255
coordinate.y = 50.012
header = "temp_bycoord"
parameter = "vertical.temperature"

[[csv.column]]
header = "temp_byindex"
index.x = 100
index.y = 264
parameter = "vertical.temperature"

[[csv.column]]
header = "Q"
map = "gauges"
parameter = "lateral.river.q"

[[csv.column]]
header = "recharge"
map = "subcatchment"
parameter = "vertical.recharge"
reducer = "mean"

Modify parameters

It is possible to modify model parameters and forcing through the TOML file. Two options to modify input parameters are available:

  • Set an input parameter (static) to an uniform value.
  • Modify an input parameter (cyclic and static) or forcing variable through the use of a scale factor and offset.

To set for example the input parameter cfmax to an uniform value of 2.5:

[input.vertical]
water_holding_capacity = "WHC"
waterfrac = "WaterFrac"
cfmax.value = 2.5

To change for example the forcing variable precipitation with a scale factor of 1.5 and an offset of 0.5:

[input.vertical.precipitation]
netcdf.variable.name = "P"
scale = 1.5
offset = 0.5